One common cause for deadlocks when using InnoDB tables is from the existence of foreign key constraints and the shared locks (S-lock) they acquire on referenced rows.
The reason I want to discuss them though is because they are often a bit tricky to diagnose, especially if you are only looking at the SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS output (which might be a bit counter-intuitive since one would expect it to contain this info).
Let me show a deadlock error to illustrate (below is from SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS\g):
------------------------ LATEST DETECTED DEADLOCK ------------------------ 111109 20:10:03 *** (1) TRANSACTION: TRANSACTION 65839, ACTIVE 19 sec, OS thread id 4264 starting index read mysql tables in use 1, locked 1 LOCK WAIT 6 lock struct(s), heap size 1024, 3 row lock(s), undo log entries 1 MySQL thread id 3, query id 74 localhost 127.0.0.1 root Updating UPDATE parent SET age=age+1 WHERE id=1 *** (1) WAITING FOR THIS LOCK TO BE GRANTED: RECORD LOCKS space id 6833 page no 3 n bits 72 index `PRIMARY` of table `test`.`parent` trx id 65839 lock_mode X locks rec but not gap waiting Record lock, heap no 2 PHYSICAL RECORD: n_fields 4; compact format; info bits 0 *** (2) TRANSACTION: TRANSACTION 65838, ACTIVE 26 sec, OS thread id 768 starting index read, thread declared inside InnoDB 500 mysql tables in use 1, locked 1 7 lock struct(s), heap size 1024, 4 row lock(s), undo log entries 2 MySQL thread id 4, query id 75 localhost 127.0.0.1 root Updating UPDATE parent SET age=age+1 WHERE id=2 *** (2) HOLDS THE LOCK(S): RECORD LOCKS space id 6833 page no 3 n bits 72 index `PRIMARY` of table `test`.`parent` trx id 65838 lock_mode X locks rec but not gap Record lock, heap no 2 PHYSICAL RECORD: n_fields 4; compact format; info bits 0 *** (2) WAITING FOR THIS LOCK TO BE GRANTED: RECORD LOCKS space id 6833 page no 3 n bits 72 index `PRIMARY` of table `test`.`parent` trx id 65838 lock_mode X locks rec but not gap waiting Record lock, heap no 3 PHYSICAL RECORD: n_fields 4; compact format; info bits 0 *** WE ROLL BACK TRANSACTION (1)
Now, we do see a lot about what caused the deadlock above, but we are only seeing *half* of the picture.
Allow me to explain ..
First of all, note transaction #1 has been running for 19 seconds, while transaction #2 for 26 seconds. So, the output is referring to the newer transaction as #1 and the older as #2 (also somewhat counter-intuitive, but good to be aware of).
Now, what we can see clearly is this:
Transaction #1 (“UPDATE parent .. WHERE id=1″) is waiting on a lock from Transaction #2 (“UPDATE parent .. WHERE id=2″).
Thus TX #2 holds a lock (RECORD LOCKS space id 6833 page no 3 n bits 72 index, heap no 2), but is waiting on (RECORD LOCKS space id 6833 page no 3 n bits 72 index, heap no 3 – held by TX #1).
Clearly the 2 updates should not cause a conflict in and of themselves. Thus we know something must have happened earlier in the transaction(s).
For reference, here is how to reproduce it:
CREATE TABLE `parent` ( `id` INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, `age` INT NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (`id`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB; CREATE TABLE `child` ( `id` INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, `age` INT NOT NULL, `parent_id` INT NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (`id`), KEY `parent_id` (`parent_id`), CONSTRAINT `fk_parent_id` FOREIGN KEY (`parent_id`) REFERENCES `parent` (`id`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB; INSERT INTO parent (id, age) VALUES (1, 50); INSERT INTO parent (id, age) VALUES (2, 60); INSERT INTO child (id, age, parent_id) VALUES (1, 20, 1); INSERT INTO child (id, age, parent_id) VALUES (2, 20, 1);
Then, open 2 connections (T1 and T2 – note order is opposite compared to what is shown in SHOW INNODB STATUS):
BEGIN; UPDATE child SET age=age+1, parent_id=2 WHERE id=1; UPDATE parent SET age=age+1 WHERE id=1;
BEGIN; UPDATE child SET age=age+1, parent_id=2 WHERE id=2; UPDATE parent SET age=age+1 WHERE id=1;
<-- T2 Hangs
UPDATE parent SET age=age+1 WHERE id=2;
<-- Deadlock (T1 completes, T2 is rolled back)
But why does this deadlock? Well, it is due to the foreign key. In fact, this example would not deadlock at all if no foreign key was defined on `parent`.`id`.
So then what exactly is preventing T2 from completing?
Here is what is happening behind the scenes, so-to-speak:
Obtains the following 2 locks:
X lock on `child` where id=1 <-- due to the actual "UPDATE child" statement itself S lock on `parent` where id=2 <-- due to the FK on parent.id
(Note this S lock means other S locks can be obtained on this row, but not X locks -- which is the crux of this issue).
Obtains the following lock:
X lock on `parent` where id=1 <-- due to the actual "UPDATE parent" statement itself
Obtains the following 2 locks:
X lock on `child` where id=2 <-- due to the actual "UPDATE child" statement itself S lock on `parent` where id=2 <-- due to the FK (again, this is okay since it is also a S-lock)
Tries to obtain the following, but hangs due to the existing X-lock from T1#2:
X lock on parent where id=1
Tries to obtain the following lock:
X lock on parent where id=2
However, since there are 2 S-locks on this row already (one from T1 and T2), and T1 now wants an X-lock on the same row, then there is a conflict.
Now this would normally just wait for the S-locks to be released, but since T2 is already "hung" waiting on the other lock to be released from T1, we now have the deadlock.
T1 wins the dispute, T2 rolls back thus releasing its locks, and T1 completes.
So all in all, quite a bit is going on there, but you only see about half of this information from the LATEST DETECTED DEADLOCK section of SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS output. And had I not posted the SHOW CREATE TABLE status (and prior tx statements), it'd be unclear as to what happened exactly.
Well, so how do you find out exactly what happened when locking problems happen to you?
SHOW INNODB STATUS only tells you so much. Furthermore, once the deadlock occurs, the winner moves on, and the loser is rolled back. *Meaning*, there is no longer any information about these "transactions" in the output as they are in the "past" now.
Therefore, in general, if you're having any locking issues (deadlocks, lock wait timeouts, hangs due to semaphore waits, and so forth), do yourself a favor and capture all of the following outputs at the time, if possible, to give you the best likelihood in tracking down the issue:
- SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS
- This is generally very good, but it can get truncated, and simply may not contain every bit of info you need.
- Enable InnoDB Lock Monitor (enable the InnODb Lock Monitor by simply creating any innodb table named innodb_lock_monitor)
- This logs a lot of extra lock information in the SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS output, but it can get truncated too.
- Run "mysqladmin debug"
- Logs all lock info to the error log. Great because it logs all locks (i.e., none truncated) and it logs LOCK TABLE locks, which do not appear in SHOW INNODB STATUS even if on an InnoDB table, because LOCK TABLE is external to the InnoDB storage engine. Not so great because a bit cryptic to read, and I wouldn't solely reply on it, as it's often most helpful in conjuntion with other details).
- SHOW FULL PROCESSLIST
- This will show all connected threads. Specifically, when it comes to 'hidden' locks, it would show a user that has been connected, but idle (but who could have issued a LOCK TABLE command).
- Error log
- Of course, always check out the error log for messages and/or anything out of the ordinary. (Not to mention extra data will be logged to it from "mysqladmin debug" and innodb_lock_monitor.)
- SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_LOCKS, INNODB_LOCK_WAITS, and INNODB_TRX tables
- This is only available as of MySQL 5.1 and newer (and you must be using the InnoDB Plugin), but since most of you will be running this, they contain great information. In fact, I've written a past post on Debugging InnoDB Locks using the new InnoDB Plugin’s Information Schema Tables which contains even more details on using these 3 tables for troubleshooting.
- SHOW CREATE TABLE outputs for each table involved
Tags: chris calender, deadlock, error log, exclusive lock, foreign key, information_schema, information_schema.innodb_lock_waits, information_schema.innodb_trx, innodb deadlock, innodb lock monitor, innodb locking, innodb locks, innodb plugin, INNODB_LOCKS, innodb_lock_monitor, INNODB_LOCK_WAITS, INNODB_TRX, locks truncated, myisam locks, mysql deadlock, mysql error log, mysql locks, mysqladmin, mysqladmin debug, s lock, s-lock x lock, shared lock, show engine innodb status, show full processlist, show innodb status, show processlist, skysql, troubleshooting innodb deadlocks, x-lock